Man Page Minute 20070828 – ls

LS(1) User Commands LS(1)

NAME
ls – list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…

DESCRIPTION
List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor –sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options
too.

-a, –all
do not ignore entries starting with .

-A, –almost-all
do not list implied . and ..

–author
with -l, print the author of each file

-b, –escape
print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

–block-size=SIZE
use SIZE-byte blocks

-B, –ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~

-c with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
file status information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name
otherwise: sort by ctime

-C list entries by columns

–color[=WHEN]
control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN
may be never, always, or auto

-d, –directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not derefer
ence symbolic links

-D, –dired
generate output designed for Emacs dired mode

-f do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst

-F, –classify
append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

–file-type
likewise, except do not append *

–format=WORD
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1,
verbose -l, vertical -C

–full-time
like -l –time-style=full-iso

-g like -l, but do not list owner

-G, –no-group
like -l, but do not list group

-h, –human-readable
with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

–si likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

-H, –dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line

–dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
follow each command line symbolic link that points to a direc
tory

–hide=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
by -a or -A)

–indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), slash (-p), file-type (–file-type), classify
(-F)

-i, –inode
with -l, print the index number of each file

-I, –ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

-k like –block-size=1K

-l use a long listing format

-L, –dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show informa
tion for the file the link references rather than for the link
itself

-m fill width with a comma separated list of entries

-n, –numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

-N, –literal
print raw entry names (dont treat e.g. control characters spe
cially)

-o like -l, but do not list group information

-p, –indicator-style=slash
append / indicator to directories

-q, –hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters

–show-control-chars
show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is
ls and output is a terminal)

-Q, –quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes

–quoting-style=WORD
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell,
shell-always, c, escape

-r, –reverse
reverse order while sorting

-R, –recursive
list subdirectories recursively

-s, –size
with -l, print size of each file, in blocks

-S sort by file size

–sort=WORD
extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v, status -c,
time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u

–time=WORD
with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime,
access, use, ctime or status; use specified time as sort key if
–sort=time

–time-style=STYLE
with -l, show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso,
locale, +FORMAT. FORMAT is interpreted like date; if FORMAT
is FORMAT1FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files
and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed with posix-,
STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

-t sort by modification time

-T, –tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

-u with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access
time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

-U do not sort; list entries in directory order

-v sort by version

-w, –width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value

-x list entries by lines instead of by columns

-X sort alphabetically by entry extension

-1 list one file per line

SELinux options:

–lcontext
Display security context. Enable -l. Lines will probably be
too wide for most displays.

-Z, –context
Display security context so it fits on most displays. Displays
only mode, user, group, security context and file name.

–scontext
Display only security context and file name.

–help display this help and exit

–version
output version information and exit

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of fol
lowing: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
P, E, Z, Y.

By default, color is not used to distinguish types of files. That is
equivalent to using –color=none. Using the –color option without the
optional WHEN argument is equivalent to using –color=always. With
–color=auto, color codes are output only if standard output is con
nected to a terminal (tty). The environment variable LS_COLORS can
influence the colors, and can be set easily by the dircolors command.

Exit status is 0 if OK, 1 if minor problems, 2 if serious trouble.

AUTHOR
Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
Report bugs to .

COPYRIGHT
Copyright 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the
terms of the GNU General Public License
. There is NO WARRANTY, to the
extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
The full documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If
the info and ls programs are properly installed at your site, the com
mand

info ls

should give you access to the complete manual.

ls 5.93 November 2005 LS(1)

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